How to Install Drupal on Debian 11

how to install drupal on debian 11

In this tutorial, we will install Drupal CMS on Debian 11 OS.

Drupal is a free, open-source content management system written in PHP. It offers a variety of modules, themes, localization in 100 different languages, auto-update notifications, etc. The Drupal community is getting bigger daily, reaching 1.4 million members, including actively contributing users. The advantage of using Drupal is that it is compatible with any system that has PHP and a database for storing Drupal data.

In this blog post, we will install Drupal on Debian 11 with the LAMP stack, which may take up to 20 minutes. Let’s get things working!


  • A server with Debian 11 as OS
  • User privileges: root or non-root user with sudo privileges

Step 1. Update the System

Update the system packages to the latest versions available. Execute the following command:

sudo apt-get update -y && sudo apt-get upgrade -y

Step 2. Install LAMP Stack

First, we will install the Apache Web server. Execute the following command:

sudo apt-get install apache2 -y

Once installed, start and enable the service.

sudo systemctl enable apache2 && sudo systemctl start apache2

Check if the service is up and running:

sudo systemctl status apache2

You should receive the following output:

root@host:~# sudo systemctl status apache2
● apache2.service - The Apache HTTP Server
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/apache2.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
Active: active (running) since Tue 2022-12-27 06:38:17 CST; 36min ago
Main PID: 423 (apache2)
Tasks: 55 (limit: 4675)
Memory: 18.2M
CPU: 510ms
CGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service
├─423 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
├─445 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
└─446 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start

Dec 27 06:38:17 host.test.vps systemd[1]: Starting The Apache HTTP Server...
Dec 27 06:38:17 host.test.vps systemd[1]: Started The Apache HTTP Server.

Next, we will install PHP along with its extensions. To do that, first, add the GPG key and the repo with the following commands:

apt -y install lsb-release apt-transport-https ca-certificates

wget -O /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/php.gpg

echo "deb $(lsb_release -sc) main" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/php.list

sudo apt-get update -y

Once the PHP key and repo are added, you can install the PHP with extensions using this long command:

sudo apt-get install php8.2 php8.2-common php8.2-curl libapache2-mod-php php8.2-imap php8.2-redis php8.2-cli php8.2-snmp php8.2-xml php8.2-zip php8.2-mbstring php-gd php-xml php-mysql php-mbstring -y

After successful installation, you can check the PHP version with the following command:

php -v

You should get the following output:

root@host:~# php -v
PHP 8.1.13 (cli) (built: Nov 26 2022 14:27:02) (NTS)
Copyright (c) The PHP Group
Zend Engine v4.1.13, Copyright (c) Zend Technologies
with Zend OPcache v8.1.13, Copyright (c), by Zend Technologies

The last of the LAMP stack is the MariaDB database service. To install it execute the following command:

sudo apt-get install mariadb-server -y

Start and enable the mariadb.service with the following commands:

sudo systemctl start mariadb && sudo systemctl enable mariadb

Check the status of the mariadb.service

sudo systemctl status mariadb

You should receive the following output:

root@host:~# sudo systemctl status mariadb
● mariadb.service - MariaDB 10.5.18 database server
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
Active: active (running) since Tue 2022-12-27 07:45:16 CST; 5min ago
Docs: man:mariadbd(8)
Main PID: 43791 (mariadbd)
Status: "Taking your SQL requests now..."
Tasks: 8 (limit: 4675)
Memory: 78.0M
CPU: 606ms
CGroup: /system.slice/mariadb.service
└─43791 /usr/sbin/mariadbd

Now, when the LAMP stack is installed, we are ready to proceed with database creation and Drupal installation.

Step 3. Create a Drupal Database and User

To create a Drupal database, the Drupal user and grant the permissions for that user to the database first log in to MySQL command line with the mysql command and execute the following lines of code one by one:

CREATE USER 'drupal'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'YourStrongPasswordHere';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON drupal.* TO 'drupal'@'localhost';

Now, the database and user with the name drupal have been added with proper permissions. We are ready to download the Drupal installation and set the file and folder permissions.

Step 4. Download Drupal

First, go into the Document root of the Apache web server:

cd /var/www/html

To download the latest stable release of Drupal 10, execute the following command:



mv drupal-10.0.0/ drupal/


Set the right permissions to files and folders.

chown -R www-data:www-data drupal/

find . -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \;

find . -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;

In the next step, we will configure the Apache Virtual Host file.

Step 5. Create Apache Virtual Host File

Go into the Apache directory and create a configuration file for the Drupal CMS.

cd /etc/apache2/sites-available/

touch drupal.conf

Open the file, paste the following lines of code, save it, and close it.

<VirtualHost *:80>
DocumentRoot /var/www/html/drupal

<Directory /var/www/html/drupal>
AllowOverride All

ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined


Enable the Apache configuration for Drupal and rewrite module.

a2dissite 000-default.conf

sudo a2enmod rewrite

sudo a2ensite drupal.conf

Check the syntax:

apachectl -t

You should receive the following output:

root@vps:~# apachectl -t
Syntax OK

If the syntax is OK, restartd the Apache service.

systemctl restart apache2

Once the Apache service is restarted, you can finish the Drupal installation at

Step 6. Finish Drupal Installation

The installation can be finished at You should see the following screen:

drupal finished installation

On the next window, leave the standard installation setup and click on Save and continue.

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drupal select installation profile

Since we installed all required dependencies, the third section will be skipped, and the user will be redirected to the database section. In this section, enter the Drupal database, user, and password you set in Step 3.

drupal database configuration

Once the database setup is completed, the installation will start:

drupal installing

After successful installation, we need to add the website name, email, admin user, and password.

drupal configure site

Once this is done, click on Save and continue.

drupal site configuration done

Drupal will automatically sign you into the admin dashboard.

drupal admin dashboard

That’s it. You successfully installed and configured the latest version of Drupal 10 on Debian 11 OS. If you find this setup difficult, please get in touch with our technical support. We are available 24/7 and will help you with your Drupal configuration. You just need to sign up for one of our NVMe VPS plans and submit a support ticket. We are waiting for you!

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